Tensions arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U.S.-backed Western Bloc which became known as the Cold War. In 1961, Malenkov was expelled from the Communist Party and exiled to a remote province of the Soviet Union. [255] Residing at his Gorki dacha, Lenin's main connection to Sovnarkom was through Stalin, who was a regular visitor. [554] Germany was divided into four zones: Soviet, U.S., British, and French, with Berlin itself—located within the Soviet area—also subdivided thusly. Joseph Stalin, secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power. [171], On 24 October, police raided the Bolshevik newspaper offices, smashing machinery and presses; Stalin salvaged some of this equipment to continue his activities. [652] He was hand-fed using a spoon, given various medicines and injections, and leeches were applied to him. [421] The first Moscow Trial took place in August 1936; Kamenev and Zinoviev were among those accused of plotting assassinations, found guilty in a show trial, and executed. [418] Stalin issued a decree establishing NKVD troikas which could mete out rulings without involving the courts. [591] In August 1949, the bomb was successfully tested in the deserts outside Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan. [681] According to scholar Robert Service, Stalin's "few innovations in ideology were crude, dubious developments of Marxism".
[573] Recognising the need for drastic steps to be taken to combat inflation and promote economic regeneration, in December 1947 Stalin's government devalued the ruble and abolished the ration-book system. The post of the General Secretary was abolished in 1952 under Stalin and later re-established by Nikita Khrushchev under the name of First Secretary. Feedback [519] When Stalin learned that people in Western countries affectionately called him "Uncle Joe" he was initially offended, regarding it as undignified. [893], Official records reveal 799,455 documented executions in the Soviet Union between 1921 and 1953; 681,692 of these were carried out between 1937 and 1938, the years of the Great Purge. [226], Following earlier clashes between Polish and Russian troops, the Polish–Soviet War broke out in early 1920, with the Poles invading Ukraine and taking Kyiv on 7 May. [503], In April 1942, Stalin overrode Stavka by ordering the Soviets' first serious counter-attack, an attempt to seize German-held Kharkov in eastern Ukraine. The repression of so many formerly high-ranking revolutionaries and Party members was condemned by Leon Trotsky, as he claimed that a "river of blood" separated Stalin's regime from the true socialism of Lenin. [35], Stalin joined a forbidden book club at the school;[36] he was particularly influenced by Nikolay Chernyshevsky's 1863 pro-revolutionary novel What Is To Be Done?. [15] Ekaterine and Stalin left the home by 1883 and began a wandering life, moving through nine different rented rooms over the next decade. [217] He was reprimanded by Lenin at the 8th Party Congress for employing tactics which resulted in far too many deaths of Red Army soldiers. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported European anti-fascist movements during the 1930s, particularly in the Spanish Civil War. With Germany defeated and the US now in possession of the atomic bomb, the Allies no longer needed the co-operation of the Soviet Union. [662] That month featured a surge in arrests for "anti-Soviet agitation" as those celebrating Stalin's death came to police attention. Zhdanov's sought to use the ideological purification of the party as a vehicle to restore the Kremlin's political control over the provinces and the technocrats. Many Americans who had immigrated to the Soviet Union during the worst of the Great Depression were executed, while others were sent to prison camps or gulags.

Some historians, however, believe it was Stalin who orchestrated the killing. [542], In April 1945, the Red Army seized Berlin, Hitler committed suicide, and Germany surrendered in May. The US also offered financial assistance as part of the Marshall Plan on the condition that they opened their markets to trade, aware that the Soviets would never agree. [319] In January 1930, the Politburo approved the liquidation of the kulak class; accused kulaks were rounded up and exiled to other parts of the country or to concentration camps. Either we do this or we'll be crushed. His main motive was, presumably, to maximize his personal power. [684] He believed that the working classes would prove successful in this struggle and would establish a dictatorship of the proletariat,[685] regarding the Soviet Union as an example of such a state.

[321] By July 1930, over 320,000 households had been affected by the de-kulakisation policy.
His rule lasted for little more than a year until his death thirteen months later on 10 March 1985. Stalin did not play a significant role in the armed uprising known as the October Revolution. He notes that the estimate is far lower than the estimates of 20 million or above which were made before access to the archives. Later Golubtsova was the director of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, a center for nuclear power research in USSR.[9][10]. Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. "Malenkov's biography from "Secret pages of history.

However, after only a week, Malenkov was forced to resign from the Secretariat. [608] Stalin had a particularly strained relationship with Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito due to the latter's continued calls for Balkan federation and for Soviet aid for the communist forces in the ongoing Greek Civil War. Industrial output in 1922 was 13% of that of 1914. [616] Monarchy was abolished in Bulgaria and Romania. [5][6] Some of them served as officers in the Russian Imperial Army.

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