Julius II was chiefly a soldier, and the fame attached to his name is greatly due to his re-establishment of the Pontifical States and the deliverance of Italy from its subjection to France. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. When he finished the Vatican Library, he amazed Julius II so much that according to Vasari he chose "to destroy all the scenes painted by other masters from the past and present, so that Raphael alone would be honored above all those who labored on the paints which had been done up to that time"(Vasari, 314). [61] Louis offered Cesare another of his relatives, the "beautiful and rich" Charlotte d'Albret,[62] whom Cesare married at Blois on 13 May 1499. 5 Feb. 2007 <, Minnich, Nelson H. "Julius II (1503–13). The painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo and of various rooms by Raphael in the Apostolic Palace are considered among the masterworks that mark the High Renaissance in Rome. They served political, spiritual and aesthetic purposes. As IMDb celebrates its 30th birthday, we have six shows to get you ready for those pivotal years of your life ... your 30s. In 1503 a new pope was appointed: the very worldly Pope Julius II, a self-declared lover of power, war, and art. The film told the story of his late wife’s grandparents, who had traveled from Philadelphia to Nazi Germany in 1939 to save several dozen Jewish children before the walls closed in. Saved by an allegory to the Expulsion of Helidorus, the French gone, Julius collapsed once again in late 1512, very seriously ill once more. In 11th century Normandy, a Norman duke sends one of his knights to build a defensive fortress in order to guard the borders against Frisian raiders. He was summoned by King Charles VIII to Lyons, where the two met on 1 June 1494. On 4 February he had an extensive conversation with Paris concerning the arrangements for his funeral. October 1, 1910. //]]> . With Charlton Heston, Rex Harrison, Diane Cilento, Harry Andrews. Pressman also wanted to introduce viewers to little-known American players who loomed large in the Vatican’s role during the war. [80], The Bull entitled Ea quae pro bono pacis, issued on 24 January 1506, confirmed papal approval of the mare clausum policy being pursued by Spain and Portugal amid their explorations, and approved the changes of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas to previous papal bulls. A famous orchestra conductor is captured by the Germans in WW2, and is forced to perform at private concerts for the Nazi generals. Perugia surrendered without any bloodshed on 13 September, and the pope proceeded towards Bologna. The richest was Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, at 30,000 ducats. Unable to cope alone with the powerful Republic of Venice, he reluctantly joined the League of Cambrai on 23 March, 1509. Indeed, on the day of his election, he declared: ", Shaw, Christine. [78][79] The combination was, however, at first little more than nominal, and was not immediately effective in compelling the Venetians to deliver up more than a few unimportant places in the Romagna. [102] Julius' reply was the issuing of the bull Non-sini gravi of 18 July 1511, which fixed the date of 19 April 1512 for the opening of his own council. May 1999. MLA citation. Use the HTML below. In the Sudan, in 1884 to 1885, Egyptian forces led by British General Charles "Chinese" Gordon (Charlton Heston) defend Khartoum against an invading Muslim Army led by a religious fanatic, Mohammed Ahmed el Mahdi (Sir Laurence Olivier). 445-446. In the treaty effected between them, it was stipulated that Giuliano should remain in possession of all his dignities and benefices, and should be guaranteed secure and undisturbed residence in Rome. Such an unlawful restriction of papal rights no pope could tolerate, much less the impatient, irascible, ambitious, and warlike Julius II, whose fearless and awe-inspiring presence gained for him the epithet of pontefice terribile. As the title implies, “Holy Silence” suggests that the Vatican under Pius XII was indeed guilty of neglect in the face of unspeakable moral horror. Scholars accept that the probable and foremost reason was that it would be a way to forever leave his mark on the Catholic Church. Bramante not only would fulfill these expectations with his design, but also with his character, which may explain why della Rovere chose him over Sangallo. As a first step as pope, Julius subjugated Perugia and Bologna in the autumn of 1508. These large incomes, however, he did not spend in vain pomp and dissipation, as was the custom of many ecclesiastics of those times. On 15 December, 1471, he was created Cardinal Priest of San Pietro in Vincoli, and thereafter literally overwhelmed with benefices, although during the lifetime of Sixtus IV he never took a prominent part in ecclesiastical diplomacy. Pope Julius II (reigned 1503–1513), commissioned a series of highly influential art and architecture projects in the Vatican. He was a great patron of the arts and personally commissioned many great masterpieces. Italy wasn't at peace either. Venice, however, stubbornly refused to give back the cities which it had previously taken. The Kingdom of Naples was under Spanish rule, and the Borja family from Spain was a major political faction in the Papal States following the reign of Alexander VI. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 November, 1503; died at Rome, in the night of 20-21 February, 1513. At Perugia the Baglioni and at Bologna the Bentivogli were acting as independent despots.

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