lenses, types of lens,sign of conventions of radius of curvature and principal focus SIGN CONVENTION. Sign Convention for Spherical Lenses All the distances are measured from the optical center of the lens. According to cartesian sign convention, 1. 2. For converging lenses, the focal length is always positive, while diverging lenses always have negative focal lengths. axis. Refer to the diagram for clear visualization. The sign convention for the optical radius of curvature is as follows: If the vertex lies to the left of the center of curvature, the radius of curvature is positive. The distances measured in the direction of incident rays are positive and all the distances measured in the direction opposite to that of the incident rays are negative. 1. Sign conventions 4 • Light travels from left to right • A radius of curvature is positive if the surface is convex towards the left • Longitudinal distances are positive if pointing to the right • Lateral distances are positive if pointing up • Ray angles are positive if the ray direction is obtained by rotating the https://www.khanacademy.org/.../v/sign-conventions-for-mirror-lenses Sign convention is a set of rules to set signs for image distance, object distance, focal length, etc for mathematical analysis of image formation. All the distances are measured from the optical centre of the lens. SIGN CONVENTION. Lens Formula: Lens formula gives the relationship between ob distanceject (u), image-distance (v) and the focal length (f ). The sign conventions for the given quantities in the lens equation and magnification equations are as follows: f is + if the lens is a double convex lens (converging lens) f is - if the lens is a double concave lens (diverging lens) d i is + if the image is a real image and located on the opposite side of the lens. The first time when sign convention is applied to derive Lens Formula, it is to make sure the formula is as general as possible. Figure of converging lens with labeled negative and positive focal lengths. Following sign convention is used for measuring various distances during the formation of images by lenses: All distances on the principal axis are measured from the optical center. The object is always placed on the left side of the lens. According to cartesian sign convention, 1. If the vertex lies to the right of the center of curvature, the radius of curvature is negative. Cartesian sign conventions are used for measuring the various distances in the ray diagrams of spherical lenses. u, v, f, object height . New Cartesian Sign Convention is used to avoid confusion in understanding the ray directions. The object is always placed on the left side of the lens. The distances measured in the same direction as that of incident light are taken as positive. The lens formula is expressed as, 1 = 1 3. The distances measured against the direction of incident light are taken as negative.

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